“The reason people are hungry
is that those above levy so many taxes
this is why they are hungry
the reason people are hard to rule
is that those above are so forceful
this is why they are hard to rule
the reason people think little of death
is that those above think so much of life
this is why they think little of death
meanwhile those who do nothing to live
are more esteemed than those who love life”
(Taoteching, verse 75, translation by Red Pine)
DUKE AI approached YU JUO: “The year is one of famine, and my revenues are wanting. What am I to do?” Yu Juo replied, “Return to the 10 percent rate of taxation.” Duke Ai said, “But I cannot get by on 20 percent. How will I survive on 10 percent?” Yu Juo replied, “When the people don’t want, why should the ruler want. When the people want, why should the ruler not want?” (Lunyu: 12.9).
WANG PI says, “The people hide and disorder prevails because of those above, not because of those below. The people follow those above.”
LI HSI-CHAI says, “If those above take too much, those below will be impoverished. If those above use too much force, those below will rebel. This is a matter of course. When people think their own life is more important, and they disregard the lives of others, why should others not treat death lightly? Sages don’t think about life unless they are forced to.”
TE-CH’ING says, “Robbers and thieves arise from hunger and cold. If people are hungry and have no means to live, they have no choice but to steal. When people steal, it’s because those above force them. They force people to turn to stealing and then try to rule with cleverness and laws. But the more laws they make, the more thieves appear. Even the threat of the executioner’s ax doesn’t frighten them. And the reason people aren’t frightened by death is that those above are so concerned with life.”
SU CH’E says, “When those above use force to lead the people, the people respond with force. Thus do complications multiply and the people become hard to rule.”
WANG CHEN says, “‘Forceful’ refers to the ruler’s love of might and arms. But once arms prevail, disorder is certain.”
HUAI-NAN-TZU says, “The reason people cannot live out their allotted years and are sentenced to death in midlife is that they think so much of life. Meanwhile, those who do nothing to stay alive are able to lengthen their lives” (Huainantzu: 7).
HO-SHANG KUNG says, “Only those who do nothing to stay alive, who aren’t moved by titles or sinecures, who aren’t affected by wealth or advantages, who refuse to serve the emperor or run errands for lesser lords – they alone are more esteemed than those who love life.”
YEN TSUN says, “The Natural Way always turns things upside down. What has no body lives. What has a body dies. To be alive and to seek advantages is the beginning of death. Not to be alive and to get rid of advantages is the beginning of life. Those who don’t work to live live long.”
WANG TAO says, “The meaning of the last two lines is: If I didn’t have this body of mine, what worries would I have?”
WANG P’ANG says, “If you understand only one of these three, you can understand the other two.”
Every time I come to today’s verse I find myself thinking to myself, this is just common sense. It is self-evident, really. But, as I am often fond of saying, “Common sense isn’t all that common.” What seems self-evident to me, seems to evade many others. So, in the interest of enlightenment, let’s just take Lao-tzu’s points one by one; for, as Wang P’ang says, “If you understand only one of these three, you can understand the other two.”
Why are people hungry? It is because those above them levy too many taxes on them. Why are people hard to rule? It is because those above them rely too much on force.
Why do people think so little of death? It is because those above think so much of life.
Lao-tzu is emphatic about this, repeating the reason twice in each case. The people are forced by those above them to act the way they do. They are hungry, so they steal. Those above have robbed them of “legitimate” means for their livelihood. The more force is applied from above, the more the people slip through their fingers. I don’t know whether Duke Ai ended up following Yu Juo’s sage advice. Why are those above so concerned about their own lives when the people below them are suffering? That only increases their suffering. So, the people think less and less of death, because their lives have no meaning beyond toil, and for what? If those above stopped being so concerned with their own lives, they would be more esteemed than those who love their lives.
Red Pine introduces the following with today’s verse:
DUKE AI (FL. 5TH C. B.C.). Ruler of the state of Lu and interlocutor of Lunyu: 12.9.
YU JUO (FL. 5TH C. B.C.). Disciple of Confucius known for his resemblance to the sage as well as for his love of antiquity. After Confucius’ death, many of his disciples wanted to render to Yu Juo the same observances they had conferred on Confucius. But this was opposed by Tseng-tzu.