“When people are born
they are soft and weak
when they perish
they are hard and stiff
when plants shoot forth
they are supple and tender
when they die
they are withered and dry
thus it is said
the hard and stiff are followers of death
the soft and weak are followers of life
when an army becomes stiff it suffers defeat
when a plant becomes stiff it snaps
the hard and stiff dwell below
the soft and weak dwell above”
(Taoteching, verse 76, translation by Red Pine)
HO-SHANG KUNG says, “When people are born, they contain breath and spirit. This is why they are soft. When they die, their breath ceases and their spirit disappears. This why they are hard.”
WU CH’ENG says, “Seeing that the living are soft and the dead are hard, we can infer that those whose virtue is hard and those whose actions are forceful die before their time, while those who are soft and weak are able to preserve their lives.”
LI HSI-CHAI says, “Although the soft and weak aren’t the same as the Tao, they approach its absence of effort. Hence, they aren’t far from the Tao. Although the hard and stiff aren’t outside the Tao, they involve effort. Hence, they lead people away from it.”
LIEH-TZU says, “The world has a path of perennial victory and a path of perennial defeat. The path of perennial victory is weakness. The path of perennial defeat is strength. These two are easy to recognize, but people remain oblivous to them” (Liehtzu:2.17).
LAO-TZU says, “The weak conquer the strong” (Taoteching: 36).
WANG CHEN says, “It isn’t hard for an army to achieve victory. But it is hard to hold on to victory. There is no great army that has not brought on its own defeat through its victories.”
HSI T’UNG says, “When a plant becomes stiff, it loses its flexibility and becomes easy to break.”
WANG P’ANG says, “In terms of yin and yang, yin comes before and yang comes after. In terms of Heaven and earth, Heaven is exalted and Earth is humble. In terms of Virtue, the soft and weak overcome the hard and stiff. But in terms of material things, the hard and stiff control the soft and weak. The people of this world only see things. They don’t understand Virtue.”
SU CH’E says, “As long as it contains empty breath, the body does not suffer from rigidity. As long as they reflect perfect reason, actions are not burdened by severity. According to the unchanging principle of things, the refined rises to the top, while the coarse sinks to the bottom. The refined is soft and weak, while the coarse is hard and stiff.”
LI JUNG says, “The living belong above. The dead belong below.”
And RED PINE adds, “How different this world would be if our leaders spent as much time in their gardens as they do in their war rooms.”
Lao-tzu has been talking about those who no longer fear death as those made hard and stiff by those above them. They have become followers of death. In today’s verse, he contrasts this with followers of life, those who are soft and weak.
Just in case you weren’t understanding Lao-tzu in the previous verses, he wasn’t praising those who no longer fear death. He was merely explaining how they got that way. But, being a follower of life would be so much better. That is why he gives those who rule over us so much grief over their mismanagement of the people they have been charged with governing. The living are supposed to be soft and weak, not hard and stiff. The hard and stiff will be broken, they will incur defeat. And Lao-tzu wants so much better for us.